Glossary

Association

A total of 209 national football associations are affiliated to FIFA, world football’s governing body. The associations represent FIFA in their countries, must respect the FIFA statutes including the aims and ideals of world football’s governing body and promote and manage the sport accordingly.

Throughout this report, the terms ‘association’ and ‘country’ are used interchangeably.

Authorised lawyer

A person legally authorised to practise as a lawyer in compliance with the rules in force in his/her country of domicile who may represent a player or a club in the negotiation of a transfer or employment contract, without being requested to obtain a players’ agents’ licence.

(See: FIFA, Players’ Agents Regulations, Zurich, 29 October 2007, art. 4)

Completed transfer

A completed transfer is one where an International Transfer Certificate (ITC) has been received by the association where a player is transferring, or where that association has registered a player with a new club on a provisional basis.

(See: FIFA, Regulations on the Status and Transfer of Players, Zurich, 27 September 2012, Annexe 3)

Conditional transfer compensation

The amount payable by the engaging club to the releasing club for the transfer of a player if certain conditions are fulfilled (e.g. if the player scores ten goals or makes 20 first-team appearances, then x% in transfer compensation will be paid to the releasing club).

Confederation

Confederations are the umbrella organisations of the national football associations on each continent.

Throughout this report, the terms ‘confederation’ and ‘region’ are used interchangeably. Accordingly,

  • Asia stands for the AFC,
  • Africa stands for CAF,
  • North America stands for CONCACAF,
  • South America stands for CONMEBOL,
  • Oceania stands for the OFC, and
  • Europe stands for UEFA.

Country

In the context of this report, the term ‘country’ is used to represent the more technical term of an ‘association’.

Engage on loan

The type of transfer entered when a professional player is temporarily engaged by a new club while still in a running contract with the releasing club. A player may be loaned to another club on the basis of a written agreement between him and the clubs concerned. The player’s contract with the releasing club remains in force, with its effects being temporarily suspended for the duration of the loan.

Engage out of contract

The type of transfer entered when a player signs with an engaging club without being contractually bound to a previous club. In order to move under this type of instruction, a player’s previous contract has expired, was terminated early (by mutual agreement or unilaterally), or the player had no previous contract.

Engage player

The type of transfer entered when a player is engaged by a new club permanently and a contract with the releasing club is terminated.

Engaging club

A transferred player’s new club.

FIFA TMS

The abbreviation for FIFA TMS GmbH as the company responsible for providing an electronic platform and the processes (Transfer Matching System, TMS) which support the provision of an International Transfer Certificate (ITC).

Fixed transfer compensation

The amount of the unconditional payment to be made by the engaging club to the releasing club for the transfer of a player. Payments are agreed and fixed.

Global career path

Player movement not involving the player’s home-country (related to his nationality) as either the engaging or releasing association. Example: a French player transferred from Germany to Italy.

Incoming transfer

From the perspective of a specific region, country, or club, the term refers to the engaging of a player.

Intermediary

Throughout this report, the terms ‘intermediary’ and ‘agent’ are used interchangeably.

Both players and clubs are entitled to engage the services of a licensed players’ agent in connection with a transfer or with view to negotiating or renegotiating an employment contract. The players’ agent is entitled to be remunerated for the service he provides.

(See: FIFA, Players’ Agents Regulations, Zurich, 29 October 2007, art. 2)

There are two different types of intermediaries who can represent a club in a transfer: (1) licensed agent, (2) authorised lawyer.

There are three different types of intermediaries who can represent a player in a transfer: (1) licensed agent, (2) authorised lawyer, (3) parent, sibling or spouse.

(See: FIFA, Players’ Agents Regulations, Zurich, 29 October 2007 art. 3 and art. 4)

Intermediary commission

An intermediary is entitled to be remunerated for the service he provides.

(See: FIFA, Players’ Agents Regulations, Zurich, 29 October 2007, art. 2).

Only the commission of the intermediaries representing clubs (not of those representing players) are disclosed in TMS and thus analysed in the present report.

Intermediary rate

Intermediary commission as a percentage equivalent of the fixed transfer compensation for a transfer.

The term is used as an illustrative indicator for this report’s purposes only, acknowledging that according to the Players’ Agents Regulations, an intermediary may not participate in (part of) the agreed transfer compensation.

(See: FIFA, Players’ Agents Regulations, Zurich, 29 October 2007, art. 29)

International Transfer Certificate (ITC)

The document that allows the transfer of a player’s registration from one association to another.

(See: FIFA, Regulations on the Status and Transfer of Players, Zurich, 27 September 2012, art. 9)

Licensed agent

Both players and clubs are entitled to engage the services of a licensed agent in connection with a transfer or with a view to negotiating or renegotiating an employment contract. These agents are issued with a licence by the association with which they are registered.

(See: FIFA, Players’ Agents Regulations, Zurich, 29 October 2007, art. 2 and art. 3)

Minors

International transfers of players are only permitted if the player is over the age of 18. The following three exceptions to this rule apply:

  • The minor’s home and the club are both within 50km of a common border, and the distance between the minor’s home and the club does not exceed 100km.
  • The minor’s parents are moving to another country for a reason not linked to football.
  • The transfer is within the European Union (EU) or the European Economic Area (EEA) and the player is over 16 (and certain stringent conditions are met, such as the level of academic and football training).

(See: FIFA, Regulations on the Status and Transfer of Players, Zurich, 27 September 2012, art. 19)

Equally, the sub-committee appointed by the Players’ Status Committee for the purpose of the protection of minors has confirmed that a foreign minor who has been living for at least five years in the country where he wishes to be registered for a club for the first time should be considered a national of that country from a sporting point of view. Hence, an application for the registration of a foreign minor under these circumstances is regularly being granted.

Furthermore, 22 associations were granted a limited exemption from having to apply to the sub-committee appointed by the Players’ Status Committee for approval prior to the first registration of a foreign minor player or the international transfer of a minor player. This limited exemption only applies to amateur players wishing to join purely amateur clubs. In such cases, the association concerned assumes the responsibility for ensuring the proper respect of art. 19 of the Regulations on the Status and Transfer of Players.

Net receipts / net recipient / net spend / net spender

Net receipts and net spend are calculated as the total of a country’s receipts of fixed transfer compensation minus the total of that country’s spend on fixed transfer compensation. For net receipts, total receipts exceed total spend, and for net spend, total spend exceeds total receipts.

Outgoing transfer

From the perspective of a specific region, country or club, this term refers to the releasing of a player.

Parent, sibling or spouse

Parents, siblings or spouses may represent players in the negotiation or renegotiation of an employment contract.

(See: FIFA, Players’ Agents Regulations, Zurich, 29 October 2007, art. 4)

Professional player

A professional is a player who has a written contract with a club and is paid more for his football activity than the expenses he effectively incurs. All other players are considered amateurs.

Region

In the context of this report, the term ‘region’ is used to represent the more technical term of a ‘confederation’.

Registration period

As a general rule, players can only be registered during one of two annual registration periods, commonly referred to as ‘transfer windows’. Per association, there can only be two registration periods per season. One of the registration periods must fall between two seasons (between-season registration period) and cannot be longer than 12 weeks. The other will occur during the season, usually in the middle, and lasts up to four weeks (within-season registration period).

(See: FIFA, Regulations on the Status and Transfer of Players, Zurich, 27 September 2012, art. 6)

Releasing club

The transferred player’s previous club.

Return from loan

A type of transfer. A player who was loaned to another club on the basis of a written agreement between him and the clubs concerned returns to his club of origin after the expiry of the loan.

Solidarity contribution

If a professional player moves before the expiry of his contract, 5% of any compensation (not including training compensation) paid to his former club shall be distributed between the clubs that have contributed to his education and training as solidarity contribution.

(See: FIFA, Regulations on the Status and Transfer of Players, Zurich, 27 September 2012, Annexe 5)

TMS

Abbreviation for Transfer Matching System, the electronic platform and processes which support the provision of an International Transfer Certificate (ITC).

Training compensation

Training compensation shall be paid to the player’s training club(s): (1) when a player signs his first contract as a professional and (2) each time a professional is transferred until the end of the season of his 23rd birthday. The obligation to pay training compensation arises regardless of whether the transfer takes place during or at the end of the player’s contract.

(See: FIFA, Regulations on the Status and Transfer of Players, Zurich, 27 September 2012, Annexe 4)

Transfer

The movement of a player’s registration from one association to another accompanying a change of a player’s club affiliation. For the purposes of TMS, the international transfer of a professional male player within the scope of 11-a-side football. If a transfer agreement exists between the clubs, the transfer consists of two matching transfer instructions. If there is no transfer agreement, it consists of one transfer instruction only.

Throughout this report, the term ‘transfer’ covers international transfers where players move across country borders, but does exclude domestic transfers within country borders.

Transfer market involvement

The term refers to the total of clubs’ incoming and outgoing player movements aggregated at the level of a country or region.

Transfer type

The term defines the type of transfer entered in TMS. The four basic types of transfers are ‘engage out of contract’, ‘engage player’, ‘engage on loan’, and ‘return from loan’.

© 2013 FIFA T.M.S.